February 2017 LITERATURE REVIEW

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD)

Martins et al1 study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy adjuvant to conventional periodontal treatment of periodontal disease in Down Syndrome patients. They concluded that both types of periodontal treatment, with and without PDT, were similarly effective and were associated with a good clinical response.

Mayer and coworkers2 evaluated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the osseointegration process by comparing resonance frequency analysis measurements performed at implant placement and after 30days and micro-computed tomography images in irradiated vs nonirradiated rabbits. They found that laser therapy significantly improved the osseointegration process.

de Carvalho3 et al histologically assessed the effect of laser phototherapy (lambda780 nm) on replanted teeth in rats and concluded that there was a positive biomodulative effect on alveolar repair after tooth replantation.

AlSayed Hasan and coworkers4 evaluated the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of crowded maxillary incisors and concluded that LLLT is an effective method for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

Arany et al5 published a special issue on Lasers in Dentistry.

For those of our readers who are looking at ways to maximize marketing of lasers in their practice an article by Imneet Madan6 in the latest magazine of Laser Dentistry may be of interest.

Pulikkotil et al7 conducted a randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy in reducing Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in periodontitis patients and found that it did not lead to its reduction.

Shakibaie and Walsh8 compared in a laboratory study, violet and visible blue LED light-elicited green fluorescence emissions from enamel and dentine in healthy or carious states. They found that using violet or blue illumination in combination with green compensating filters could potentially aid in the assessment of areas of mineral loss.

Fenelon et al9 used a free running pulsed Er:YAG laser (2940 nm wavelength) to clean the surface of implants and concluded that the use of high energy densities (120 J/cm2 or more) should be avoided, but otherwise it could be used for debridement.

Malakam and coworkers10 have written an interesting article discussing a variety of photocoagulation techniques for haemostasis in oral soft tissue and the extraction socket which readers may find useful.

Azzizi et al11 examined the effect of photodynamic therapy with two photosensitizers on Streptococcus mutants In an in  vitro study  using methylene Blue  and Indocyanine Green  as photosensitizers on S. mutans. They concluded that both photosensitisers as well as chlorhexidine were effective in the elimnination of strep mutans.

Deng and coworkers12 study evaluated the effects of lasers on the outcome of direct pulp capping by means of a meta-analysis. Four laser systems (carbon dioxide; diode; erbium,chromium:yttrium-selenium-gallium-garnet; and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet) from the 510 articles were included in this meta-analysis. They concluded that the use of lasers effectively improved the prognosis of direct pulp capping treatment for permanent teeth.

Moawad et al13 evaluated the effect of associating the application of Erbium-YAG laser with rapid maxillary expansion for treating maxillary transverse deficiency in young adult patients with permanent dentition in regard to skeletal and dental effects. They found that it could be a useful approach for rapid maxillary expansion.

Carneiro-Neto and coworkers14 reviewed the literature to identify and suggest effective and safe protocols for the management of oral complications in oncology patients. Their conclusion was that the protocols suggested for management of oral mucositis and pain with MuGard – mucoadhesive hydrogel; PerioAid Tratamiento antiseptic mouthrinse with chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride; Episil plus benzydamine – bioadhesive oromucosal gel; 0,03% of Triclosan mouthwash Colgate Plax; and Diode Laser Therapy of low-level are safe for oncology patients applied according to adopted clinical parameters.

Othman et al15 examined the effect of diode laser and topical steroid on serum level of TNF-alpha ( tumor necrosis factor- alpha) in oral lichen planus patients. They concluded that whilst topical steroids are more effective, laser treatment can be used as an alternative treatment when steroids are contraindicated.

Al-Ahmad and coworkers16 published an interesting article on photoinactivation using visible light plus water-filtered Infrared-A (vis+wIRA) and chlorine e6 (Ce6) to eradicate planktonic periodontal pathogens and subgingival biofilms. The abstract is reproduced in full.

Alternative treatment methods for pathogens and microbial biofilms are required due to the widespread rise in antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has recently gained attention as a novel method to eradicate pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of a novel aPDT method using visible light (vis) and water infiltrated infrared A (wIRA) in combination with chlorine e6 (Ce6) against different periodontal pathogens in planktonic form and within in situ subgingival oral biofilms. Eight different periodontal pathogens were exposed to aPDT using vis+wIRA and 100 mug/ml Ce6 in planktonic culture. Additionally, pooled subgingival dental biofilm was also treated by aPDT and the number of viable cells determined as colony forming units (CFU). Live/dead staining was used in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize and quantify antimicrobial effects within the biofilm samples. Untreated negative controls as well as 0.2% chlorhexidine-treated positive controls were used. All eight tested periodontal pathogens including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Eikenella corrodens, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Slackia exigua, and Atopobium rimae and the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm were eliminated over the ranges of 3.43-8.34 and 3.91-4.28 log10 CFU in the log10 scale, respectively. Thus, aPDT showed bactericidal effects on the representative pathogens as well as on the in situ subgingival biofilm. The live/dead staining also revealed a significant reduction (33.45%) of active cells within the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm. Taking the favorable tissue healing effects of vis+wIRA into consideration, the significant antimicrobial effects revealed in this study highlight the potential of aPDT using this light source in combination with Ce6 as an adjunctive method to treat periodontitis as well as periimplantitis. The present results encourage also the evaluation of t!
his method for the treatment of caries and apical periodontitis.

Sebrao and coworkers17 compared the efficiency of a photodynamic therapy technique PTD) employing rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue as photosensitizers to reduce the viability of Enterococcus faecalis, a well-known pathogen found in root canal systems and found that PDT may be improved if RB is used in association with a green light laser source for the inactivation of E. faecalis.

Zaky et al18 evaluated the effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on bone formation in cystic defects following cyst enucleation and concluded that it can enhance bone healing in such defects.

Bayer and coworkers19 compared laser and ozone treatments on oral mucositis in an experimental model and concluded that low level laser therapy was more effective.

Javed et al20 published a systematic review of the role of laser irradiation in direct pulp capping procedures and found that meta-analysis showed that the success rate in the laser treatment group was significantly higher than the control group.

Cretella and coworkers21 examined the bactericidal effect of diode laser irradiation against intracanal Enterococcus faecalis and found that the diode laser was not more effective than sodium hypochlorite in reducing free bacteria.

Yilanci et al22 evaluated the temperature changes in the pulp chamber while using a newly introduced application of Er:YAG laser to debond ceramic brackets and found that it is an effective method for debonding the monocrystalline ceramic brackets.

Aboushelib and coworkers23 looked at management of patients with active lichen planus and concluded that they should be managed with oral corticosteroids and soft tissue laser irradiation before insertion of dental implants.

Arany et al24 published a special issue on Lasers in Dentistry in the Lasers in surgery and medicine journal.

Derikvand and coworkers25 published a general article on the versatility of the 980 nm diode laser in dentistry.

References

1. Martins, Fabiana; Simoes, Alyne; Oliveira, Marcio; Luiz, Ana Claudia; Gallottini, Marina; Pannuti, Claudio. Efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant in periodontal treatment in Down syndrome patients. Lasers in medical science, 31 (9):1977-1981; 2016-Dec.
2. Mayer, Luciano; Gomes, Fernando Vacilotto; de Oliveira, Marilia Gerhardt; de Moraes, Joao Feliz Duarte; Carlsson, Lennart. Peri-implant osseointegration after low-level laser therapy: micro-computed tomography and resonance frequency analysis in an animal model. Lasers in medical science, 31 (9):1789-1795; 2016-Dec.
3. de Carvalho, Fabiola Bastos; Andrade, Aline Silva; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Dos Santos; Aguiar, Marcio Cajazeira; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira. Evaluation of laser phototherapy (lambda 780 nm) after dental replantation in rats. Dental traumatology : official publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology, 32 (6):488-494; 10.1111/edt.12289 2016-Dec.
4. AlSayed Hasan, Mohammad Moaffak A; Sultan, Kinda; Hamadah, Omar. Low-level laser therapy effectiveness in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement: A randomized controlled clinical trial. The Angle orthodontist, 2016-Nov-21.
5. Arany, Praveen R; Wilder-Smith, Petra. Special issue on lasers in dentistry. Lasers in surgery and medicine, 10.1002/lsm.22612 2016-Nov-21.
6. Imneet Madan. Lasers as an asset in both daily practice and marketing. Laser international magazine of laser dentistry Vol 8,pages 32-35. issue 4/2016.
7. Pulikkotil SJ, Toh CC, Mohandas K, Leong KVG. Effect of photodynamic therapy adjunct to scaling and root planning in periodontitis patients: A randomized clinical trial. Australian Dental Journal:2016:61:440-445.
8. Shakibaie F, Walsh LJ. Violet and blue light-induced green fluorescence emission from dental caries. Australian Dental Journal:2016:61:464-468.
9. Fenelon T, Tran C, Chai L, George R, Walsh LJ. Implant surface debridement using lasers.
Australian Dental Journal Abstracts:2016:61:S17.
10. Malakam C, Rungrojwittaya N, Sanposh N, Sattayut S. A variety of photo-coagulation techniques. Laser international magazine of laser dentistry, issue 4/2016:16-20.
11. Azizi, Arash; Shademan, Samira; Rezai, Maryam; Rahimi, Arash; Lawaf, Shirin.  Effect of photodynamic therapy with two photosensitizers on Streptococcus mutants: In vitro study.  Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, 16 66-71; 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2016.08.002 2016-Dec.Deng, Yang; Zhu, Xiaodan; Zheng, Dan; Yan, Ping; Jiang, Han. Laser use in direct pulp capping: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 147 (12):935-942; 10.1016/j.adaj.2016.07.011 2016-Dec.
12. Deng, Yang; Zhu, Xiaodan; Zheng, Dan; Yan, Ping; Jiang, Han. Laser use in direct pulp capping: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 147 (12):935-942; 10.1016/j.adaj.2016.07.011 2016-Dec.
13. Moawad, Shadi George; Bouserhal, Joseph; Al-Munajed, Mohammad Kusai. Assessment of the efficiency of Erbium-YAG laser as an assistant method to rapid maxillary expansion: An in vivo study. International orthodontics,
14. Protocols for management of oral complications of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for oral cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis current. Protocols for management of oral complications of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for oral cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis current. (4):462-475; 10.1016/j.ortho.2016.10.015 2016-Dec. Carneiro-Neto, J-N; de-Menezes, J-D-S; Moura, L-B; Massucato, E-M-S; de-Andrade, C-R.
Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal, 0; 2016-Dec-06.
15. Othman, Nagwa-Abdelhamid; Shaker, Olfat-Gamil; Elshenawy, Hanaa-Mohamed; Abd-Elmoniem, Wessam; Eldin, Amany-Mohy; Fakhr, Mariam-Yehia. The effect of diode laser and topical steroid on serum level of TNF-alpha in oral lichen planus patients.
Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry, 8 (5):e566-e570; 2016-Dec.
16. Al-Ahmad, Ali; Walankiewicz, Aleksander; Hellwig, Elmar; Follo, Marie; Tennert, Christian; Wittmer, Annette; Karygianni, Lamprini. Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (vis+wIRA) and Chlorine e6 (Ce6) Eradicates Planktonic Periodontal Pathogens and Subgingival Biofilms. Frontiers in microbiology, 7 1900; 2016
17. Sebrao, Catia Cilene Nass; Bezerra, Arandi Ginane Jr; de Franca, Paulo Henrique Condeixa; Ferreira, Leslie Ecker; Westphalen, Vania Portela Ditzel. Comparison of the Efficiency of Rose Bengal and Methylene Blue as Photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy Techniques for Enterococcus faecalis Inactivation. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 35 (1):18-23; 10.1089/pho.2015.3995 2017-Jan.
18. Zaky, Ahmed Abbas; El Shenawy, Hanaa Mohamed Mohamed; Harhsh, Tarek Abdel Hamed; Shalash, Mahmoud; Awad, Noha Mohamed Ismael. Can Low Level Laser Therapy Benefit Bone Regeneration in Localized Maxillary Cystic Defects? – A Prospective Randomized Control Trial. Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences, 4 (4):720-725; 10.3889/oamjms.2016.140 2016-Dec-15.
19. Bayer, Suzan; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Acar, Ahmet Huseyin; Demirtas,
Nihat; Kandas, Nur Ozten. Comparison of laser and ozone treatments on oral mucositis in an experimental model. Lasers in medical science, 10.1007/s10103-017-2166-1 2017-Feb-11.
20. Javed, Fawad; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Abduljabbar, Tariq;
Gholamiazizi, Elham; Feng, Changyong; Aldosary, Khaled; Vohra, Fahim;
Romanos, Georgios E. Role of laser irradiation in direct pulp capping procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lasers in medical science, 32 (2):439-448; 10.1007/s10103-016-2077-6 2017-Feb.
21. Cretella, Gilda; Lajolo, Carlo; Castagnola, Raffaella; Somma, Francesco;
Inchingolo, MariaTeresa; Marigo, Luca. The Effect of Diode Laser on Planktonic Enterococcus faecalis in Infected Root Canals in an Ex Vivo Model. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 10.1089/pho.2016.4174 2017-Jan-09.
22. Yilanci, Hilal; Yildirim, Zeynep Beyza; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan. Intrapulpal Temperature Increase During Er:YAG Laser-Aided Debonding of Ceramic Brackets. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 10.1089/pho.2016.4198 2017-Jan-09.
23. Aboushelib, Moustafa Nabil; Elsafi, Mohammed Hamdy. Clinical Management Protocol for Dental Implants Inserted in Patients with Active Lichen Planus. Journal of prosthodontics : official journal of the American College of Prosthodontists, 26 (1):29-33; 10.1111/jopr.12379 2017-Jan.
24. Arany, Praveen R; Wilder-Smith, Petra. Special issue on lasers in dentistry. Lasers in surgery and medicine, 48 (10):912-914; 10.1002/lsm.22612 2016-Dec.
25. Derikvand, Nahid; Chinipardaz, Zahra; Ghasemi, Sara; Chiniforush, Nasim. The Versatility of 980 nm Diode Laser in Dentistry: A Case Series. Journal of lasers in medical sciences, 7 (3):205-208; 10.15171/jlms.2016.36 2016.