February 2016 LITERATURE REVIEW

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD)

Giannelli et al1 examined the thermal effects of lambda=808nm GaAlAs diode laser irradiation on different titanium surfaces and found that the effects of diode laser irradiation on implant surfaces depend on physical features of the titanium coating and that in order to avoid thermal or physical damage to implant surface the irradiation treatment has to be carefully selected.

Gabric and coworkers2 analyzed the healing of bone tissue treated with Er:YAG laser in contact and noncontact modes and piezosurgery in a rat model using triangular laser profilometry. They found that the osteotomies performed by the Er:YAG laser in digitally controlled noncontact mode healed the fastest.

Sierra et al3 examined the effect of low-intensity laser treatment on pain after extraction of impacted mandibular third molar in a randomised, controlled, clinical trial. They concluded that a single session of low intensity laser had no significant effect on the amount of pain under the conditions investigated.

Gurney and coworkers4 carried out an in vitro study the purpose of which was to establish parameters for the removal of lithium disilicate crowns with a laser. They found that Er,Cr:YSGG
laser application at 3.5 and 4 W was best for removing crowns conservatively.

Valerio et al5 evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of an Er:YAG laser for caries removal in primary molars, a microbiological dentin analysis, and retention of clinical restorations after 1year and concluded that caries removal with an Er:YAG laser had no influence on the clinical behavior of restorations.

Strakas and coworkers6carried out a study to evaluate the temperature increase in the pulp chamber of the teeth, during Er,Cr:YSGG bleaching, as well as to show which teeth are the most susceptible in terms of pulp temperature increase during laser-activated bleaching. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2780nm, Waterlase MD, Biolase, USA) and a yellow-coloured bleaching agent with a concentration of 38% H2O2 (Power whitening, WHITEsmile GmbH, Germany) was used. The tip used was a 6-mm long Z-type glass tip (MZ8) with a diameter of 800mum. Average output power was set to 1.25W, pulse duration 700mus (S-mode), whilst the pulse repetition rate was 10Hz. The results showed that the most susceptible teeth in terms of pulp temperature increase were the lateral maxillary incisors and the mandibular incisors. The mean temperature increase on these teeth was 1.06 and 1.00°C.

Jhingan et al7 carried out a study to compare and evaluate shear bond strength of self-etching adhesives bonded to cavities prepared by diamond bur or Er,Cr:YSGG laser and the effect of prior acid etching on shear bond strength. They concluded that Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated surfaces proved to be more receptive for adhesion than those prepared by diamond bur irrespective of the bonding agent used. Seventh-generation adhesives yielded higher shear bond strength than did sixth-generation adhesives. Prior acid etching decreased the shear bond strength of self-etching adhesives.

Kharadi and coworkers8 evaluated the safety, convenience and effectiveness of 940nm diode laser for treatment of homogenous leukoplakia and concluded that 940 nm diode lasers are safe and can be effectively used as a treatment modality for homogenous leukoplakia, without any complications and without compromising health and oral function of patients.

Ballini et al9 examined the osteogenic differentiation and gene expression of dental pulp stem cells under low-level laser irradiation. Their preliminary results show that LLLT irradiation influences the in vitro proliferation of dental pulp stem cells and increases the expression of essential proteins for bone formation.

Heggendorn and coworkers10 present a case report on the treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws-Stage 2, using antibacterial solution and low-level laser therapy showing that the patient presented improvement of the lesion with the healing of the mucosa.

Maciel et al11 compared the effect of oral miconazole gel to Photo Dynamic Therapy combined with low-power laser in the treatment of denture stomatitis and concluded that miconazole gel provided better results than a protocol combining methylene blue-mediated PDT and LPL therapy in the treatment of type II denture stomatitis.

Novaes and coworkers12 examined the performance of fluorescence-based methods for detecting and quantifying smooth-surface caries lesions in primary teeth. They used laser fluorescence devices, namely the DIAGNOdent , DIAGNOdent pen and a fluorescence camera (VistaProof). They found that although the fluorescence-based devices showed similar performance in the detection of enamel and dentin lesions, the reliability of these devices and the correlation of their findings with the actual and relative lesion depths were moderate with regard to smooth-surface caries in primary molars.

Singh et al13 carried out a split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial to assess the effects of LLLT application with respect to root coverage following semilunar coronally advanced flap procedure (SCAF) for the treatment of human maxillary multiple adjacent facial gingival recessions. They concluded that a Low Level Laser application as an adjunct to SCAF showed a significant improvement in the predictability and stability of root coverage outcomes (for a period of 6 months) compared with those achieved using SCAF alone.

References

1. Giannelli, Marco; Lasagni, Massimo; Bani, Daniele. Thermal effects of lambda=808nm GaAlAs diode laser irradiation on different titanium surfaces. Lasers in medical science, 30 (9):2341-52; 10.1007/s10103-015-1801-y 2015-Dec.
2. Gabric, Dragana; Blaskovic, Marko; Gjorgijevska, Elizabeta; Mladenov, Mitko; Tasic, Blaz; Juric, Ivona Bago; Ban, Ticijana. Evaluation of Bone Healing After Osteotomies Prepared With Er:YAG Laser in Contact and Noncontact Modes and Piezosurgery-An Animal Study. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, 74 (1):18-28; 10.1016/j.joms.2015.08.017 2016-Jan.
3. Sierra, Simone Oliveira; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa da; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita; Schalch, Tatiana Dias; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos. Effect of low-intensity laser treatment on pain after extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: a randomised, controlled, clinical trial. The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery, 53 (10):996-1000; 10.1016/j.bjoms.2015.09.006 2015-Dec.
4. Gurney, Michael L; Sharples, Stanley D; Phillips, Wesley B; Lee, Damian J. Using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser to remove lithium disilicate restorations: A pilot study. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 115 (1):90-4; 10.1016/j.prosdent.2015.08.003 2016-Jan.
5. Valerio, Rodrigo Alexandre; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Serra, Monica Campos; Polizeli, Silvana Aparecida Fernandes; Nemezio, Mariana Alencar; Galo, Rodrigo; Aires, Carolina Patricia; Dos Santos, Ana Carolina; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori. Caries removal in deciduous teeth using an Er:YAG laser: a randomized split-mouth clinical trial. Clinical oral investigations, 20 (1):65-73; 10.1007/s00784-015-1470-z 2016-Jan.
6. Strakas, D; Tolidis, K; Koliniotou-Koumpia, E; Vanweersch, L; Franzen, R; Gutknecht, N.
Intra-pulpal temperature rise of different tooth types during dental bleaching supported by an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. A pilot study. Lasers in medical science, 31 (1):77-82; 10.1007/s10103-015-1831-5 2016-Jan.
7. Jhingan, Pulkit; Sachdev, Vinod; Sandhu, Meera; Sharma, Karan. Shear Bond Strength of Self-etching Adhesives to Cavities Prepared by Diamond Bur or Er,Cr:YSGG Laser and Effect of Prior Acid Etching. The journal of adhesive dentistry, 17 (6):505-12; 10.3290/j.jad.a35259 2015-Dec.
8. Kharadi, Usama A Rashid; Onkar, Sanjeev; Birangane, Rajendra; Chaudhari, Swapnali; Kulkarni, Abhay; Chaudhari, Rohan. Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia with Diode Laser: a Pilot Study on Indian Subjects. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, 16 (18):8383-6; 2015.
9. Ballini, A; Mastrangelo, F; Gastaldi, G; Tettamanti, L; Bukvic, N; Cantore, S; Cocco, T; Saini, R; Desiate, A; Gherlone, E; Scacco, S. Osteogenic differentiation and gene expression of dental pulp stem cells under low-level laser irradiation: a good promise for tissue engineering. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents, 29 (4):813-22; 2015 Oct-Dec.
10. Heggendorn, Fabiano Luiz; Leite, Taiana Campos; Cunha, Karin Soares Goncalves; Junior, Arley Silva; Goncalves, Lucio Souza; da Costa, Karla Bianca Fernandes Fontes; Dias, Eliane Pedra. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: Report of a case using conservative protocol. Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry, 36 (1):43-7; 10.1111/scd.12143 2016-Jan.
11. Maciel, Carolina Menezes; Piva, Marta Rabello; Ribeiro, Maria Amalia Gonzaga; de Santana Santos, Thiago; Ribeiro, Cyntia Ferreira; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete.
Methylene Blue-Mediated Photodynamic Inactivation Followed by Low-Laser Therapy versus Miconazole Gel in the Treatment of Denture Stomatitis. Journal of prosthodontics : official journal of the American College of Prosthodontists, 25 (1):28-32; 10.1111/jopr.12284 2016-Jan.
12. Novaes, Tatiane Fernandes; Moriyama, Caroline Moraes; De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; Kohara, Eduardo Kazuo; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros.
Performance of fluorescence-based methods for detecting and quantifying smooth-surface caries lesions in primary teeth: an in vitro study. International journal of paediatric dentistry / the British Paedodontic Society [and] the International Association of Dentistry for Children, 26 (1):13-9; 10.1111/ipd.12152 2016-Jan.
13. Singh, Neelesh; Uppoor, Ashita; Naik, Dilip. Semilunar Coronally Advanced Flap with or without Low Level Laser Therapy in Treatment of Human Maxillary Multiple Adjacent Facial Gingival Recessions: A Clinical Study. Journal of esthetic and restorative dentistry : official publication of the American Academy of Esthetic Dentistry … [et al.], 27 (6):355-66; 10.1111/jerd.12160 2015-Nov.

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