April 2016 LITERATURE REVIEW

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).

Batista et al1 examined the effect of Nd:YAG laser on the solvent evaporation of adhesive systems. They concluded that the use of the Nd:YAG laser on the uncured adhesive technique can promote a greater evaporation of solvents, optimizing the longevity of the adhesive restorations.

Jan Turner2 has written an informative article on the use of laser phototherapy in dentistry which is recommended reading.

Klug A3 presents an interesting use of laser in the treatment of sleep apnoea and snoring in a nonsurgical approach using a special Er:YAG laser program to tighten relaxed tissues by simply illuminating them.

Elbay4 aimed to determine if low-level laser therapy can reduce the gag reflex in children undergoing intraoral maxillary radiography. They found that within the limitations of this study, LLLT of the PC 6 acupuncture points appeared to be a useful technique for controlling the gag reflex in children during maxillary radiography.

Steinet et al5 investigated whether low-level laser therapy applied at a defined distance from the gingiva had a pain-reducing effect in young patients undergoing orthodontic separation during the early mixed-dentition stage. They found that compared to the control group, pain perception was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the LLLT group on day 1 and continued to be reduced on day 2.

Chiga and coworkers6 evaluated the combined effect of fluoride varnish to Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser on permeability of eroded root dentine and concluded that that Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers can be employed to control the permeability of eroded root dentin, regardless of fluoride varnish application.

Landucci et al7 evaluated the clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy for the reduction of pain, swelling, and trismus following the surgical extraction of third molars. They found that compared with the control group there was significant reduction in pain, swelling, and trismus at 48h and 7 days postoperatively.

Martelli and coworkers8 assessed the long-term efficacy of microbiologically driven periodontal laser-assisted therapy. The abstract is reproduced in full.

Periodontitis represents a highly prevalent health problem, causing severe functional impairment, reduced quality of life and increased risk of systemic disorders, including respiratory, cardiovascular and osteoarticular diseases, diabetes and fertility problems. It is a typical example of a multifactorial disease, where a polymicrobial infection inducing chronic inflammation of periodontal tissues is favoured by environmental factors, life style and genetic background. Since periodontal pathogens can colonise poorly vascularised niches, antiseptics and antibiotics are typically associated with local treatments to manage the defects, with unstable outcomes especially in early-onset cases. Here, the results of a retrospective study are reported, evaluating the efficacy of a protocol (Periodontal Biological Laser-Assisted Therapy, Perioblast) by which microbial profiling of periodontal pockets is used to determine the extent and duration of local neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation plus conventional treatment. The protocol was applied multicentrically on 2683 patients, and found to produce a significant and enduring improvement of all clinical and bacteriological parameters, even in aggressive cases. Microbiome sequencing of selected pockets revealed major population shifts after treatment, as well as strains potentially associated with periodontitis in the absence of known pathogens. This study, conducted for the first time on such a large series, clearly demonstrates long-term efficacy of microbiology-driven non-invasive treatment of periodontal disease.

Farias et al9 evaluated the effect of using low-level laser therapy to control pain and discomfort during orthodontic treatment. They found that a single AIGaAs diode LLLT application may be indicated for the control or reduction of pain in the early stages of orthodontic treatment.

Chand andcoworkers10 evaluated the irradiation efficacy of the Diode laser and the Nd-YAG laser either un-assisted or assisted by acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) treatment on enamel’s acid resistance. Their finding was that the effect of Nd-YAG laser irradiation, used alone or in combination with APF, in decreasing the enamel demineralisation was greater than all the other groups.

Verma et al11 carried out a comparative evaluation of surface topography of tooth prepared using erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser and bur and its clinical implications. They found that bond strength value achieved by laser preparation alone without surface treatment procedure lies in the range of clinical acceptability.

Mang and coworkers12 studied the ability of photodynamic therapy to destroy a known bacterial pathogen and the extracellular matrix architecture of biofilm attached to titanium plates and germanium prisms. Their results showed that aPDT is a method that can be used to eradicate micro-organisms associated with biofilm in peri-implantitis.

Milne et al13 compared the reduction in four periodontal pathogens using Er:YAG and mechanical scaling and root planning. They found that there was a comparable reduction of pathogens for both techniques.

Akpinar Aand coworkers14 in an unusual study (for this prosthodontist anyway), compared discomfort following Nd:YAG and conventional frenectomy for males and females. They concluded that the laser provided a safer, more painless and bloodless procedure especially for females.

Castilho et al15 carried out an in vivo study to validate the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence method and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System for caries classification against the gold standard, histological examination, for detecting occlusal caries on permanent molars. They found that the usefulness of DIAGNOdent as an adjunct method for assessment of initial occlusal caries in permanent molars is questionable.

References

1. Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; Barcellos, Daphne Camara; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Damiao, Alvaro Jose; Oliveira, Hueder Paulo Moises de; Goncalves, Sergio Eduardo de Paiva Effect of Nd:YAG laser on the solvent evaporation of adhesive systems. The international journal of esthetic dentistry, 10 (4):598-609; 2015.
2. Turner J. Laser phototherapy-an expansion of dental medicine. Laser. International magazine of laser dentistry, 7(4)2015:6-8.
3. Klug A. Laser treatment of sleep apnoea and snoring. Laser. International magazine of laser dentistry, 7(4)2015:28-30.
4. Elbay, Mesut; Tak, Onjen; Sermet Elbay, Ulku; Kaya, Can; Eryilmaz, Kubilay. The use of low-level laser therapy for controlling the gag reflex in children during intraoral radiography. Lasers in medical science, 31 (2):355-61; 10.1007/s10103-016-1869-z 2016-Feb.
5. Stein, Steffen; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike; Popovic, Nenad; Braun, Andrea. Pain reduced by low-level laser therapy during use of orthodontic separators in early mixed dentition. Journal of orofacial orthopedics = Fortschritte der Kieferorthopadie : Organ/official journal Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Kieferorthopadie, 76 (5):431-9; 10.1007/s00056-015-0306-4 2015-Sep.
6. Chiga, Sandra; Toro, Carmen Victoria Torres; Lepri, Taisa Penazzo; Turssi, Cecilia Petroso; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori. Combined effect of fluoride varnish to Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser on permeability of eroded root dentine. Archives of oral biology, 64 24-7; 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2015.12.006 2016-Apr.
7. Landucci, A; Wosny, A C; Uetanabaro, L C; Moro, A; Araujo, M R.
Efficacy of a single dose of low-level laser therapy in reducing pain, swelling, and trismus following third molar extraction surgery. International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery, 45 (3):392-8; 10.1016/j.ijom.2015.10.023 2016-Mar.
8. Martelli, F S; Fanti, E; Rosati, C; Martelli, M; Bacci, G; Martelli, M L; Medico, E. Long-term efficacy of microbiology-driven periodontal laser-assisted therapy. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, 35 (3):423-31; 10.1007/s10096-015-2555-y 2016-Mar.
9. Farias, Rodrigo Duarte; Closs, Luciane Quadrado; Miguens, Sergio Augusto Quevedo Jr. Evaluation of the use of low-level laser therapy in pain control in orthodontic patients: A randomized split-mouth clinical trial. The Angle orthodontist, 86 (2):193-8; 10.2319/122214-933.1 2016-Mar.
10. Chand, B R; Kulkarni, S; Mishra, P. Inhibition of enamel demineralisation using “Nd-YAG and diode laser assisted fluoride therapy. European archives of paediatric dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 17 (1):59-6.
11. Verma, Mahesh; Kumari, Pooja; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra; Gupta, Ankur. Comparative evaluation of surface topography of tooth prepared using erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser and bur and its clinical implications. Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society, 15 (1):23-8; 10.4103/0972-4052.155042 2015 Jan-Mar.
12. Mang, Thomas; Rogers, Stephen; Keinan, David; Honma, Kiyonobu; Baier, Robert. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) induction of biofilm matrix architectural and bioadhesive modifications. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, 13 22-8; 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2015.11.007 2016-Mar
13. Milne TJ, Coates DE, Leichter JW, Soo L, Williams SM, Seymour GJ, Cullinan MP. Perodontopathogen levels following the use of an Er:YAG laser in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Austr. Dent Journal, 61:35-44.
14. Akpinar A, Toker H, Lektemur Alpan A, Calisir M. Postoperative discomfort after Nd:YAG laser and conventional frenectomy: comparison of both genders. Austr. Dent Journal, 61:71-75.
15. Castilho, Lia S; Cotta, Fernanda V M D; Bueno, Audrey C; Moreira, Allyson N; Ferreira, Efigenia F; Magalhaes, Claudia S. Validation of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in diagnosis of occlusal caries in permanent teeth: an in vivo study. European journal of oral sciences, 124 (2):188-94; 10.1111/eos.12257 2016-Apr.

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